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Crystals grown in the Materials Crystallography Group, University of Cologne

Growth of large bulk single crystals is one of the main activities of the Materials Crystallography Group. The crystal gallery presents a selection of crystals that have been grown during the last ~25 years. Applied crystal growth methods are growth from melt or melt solutions, low temperature solution growth, chemical transport reaction growth and growth under mild hydrothermal conditions.

Simple oxides

  • RuO2

Nagler, H., Bohatý, L. & Pentinghaus, H.: Züchtung von RuO2-Einkristallen durch chemischen Transport.
Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 3 (1991) 211.
 

Halogenides

  • Cs2CoCl4

Breunig, O., Garst, M., Sela, E., Buldmann, B., Becker, P., Bohatý, L.,Müller, R. & Lorenz, T.: Spin-1/2 XXZ  chain system Cs2CoCl4 in a transverse magnetic fields. Phys. Rev. Letters 111 (2013) 187202 (5pp).

Breunig, O., Garst, M., Rosch, A., Sela, E., Buldmann, B., Becker, P., Bohatý, L., Müller, R. & Lorenz, T.: Low –temperature ordered phases of the spin-1/2 XXZ  chain system Cs2CoCl4 . Phys. Rev. B 91 (2015) 024423-1/10.

  • Erythrosiderite-type crystals

    • (NH4)2[FeCl5(H2O)]

Ackermann, M., Brüning, D., Lorenz, T., Becker, P. and  Bohatý, L.: Thermodynamic properties of the new multiferroic material (NH4)2[FeCl5(H2O)]. New J. Phys. 15 (2013) 123001 (18pp).

  • Erythrosiderite-type crystals

    • K2[FeCl5(H2O)]

Ackermann, M., Lorenz, T., Becker, P., Bohatý, L.: Magnetoelectric properties of A2[FeCl5(H2O)] with A = K, Rb, Cs. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26 (2014) 506002 (11pp).

  • Erythrosiderite-type crystals

    • Rb2[FeCl5(H2O)]

  • Erythrosiderite-type crystals

    • Cs2[FeCl5(H2O)]

Fröhlich, T., Stein, J., Bohatý, L., Becker, P., Gukasov, A. & Braden, M.: Structural and magnetic phase transitions in Cs2[FeCl5(H2O)]. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 30 (2018) 295403 (10pp).

  • Erythrosiderite-type crystals

    • [(NH4)1-xKx]2[FeCl5(H2O)] mixed crystals

Brüning, D., Ackermann, M., Bohatý, L., Becker, P. & Lorenz, T.: Multiferroic vs. magnetoelectric properties of the dilution series [(NH4)1-xKx]2[FeCl5(H2O)]. 80. Jahrestagung der DPG und DPG- Frühjahrstagung, Regensburg, 06.- 11.03.2016.

Nitrates

  • K2La(NO3)5·2H2O
  • K2Ce(NO3)5·2H2O
  • K2Nd(NO3)5·2H2O
  • K2Pr(NO3)5·2H2O

Held, P., Hellwig, H., Rühle, S. & Bohatý, L.: Polar potassium rare earth nitrates K2[RE(NO3)5(H2O)2] (RE = La, Ce, Pr and Nd). I. Crystal growth and crystal structures. J. Appl. Cryst. 33 (2000) 372-379.

Hellwig, H., Rühle, S., Held, P. & Bohatý, L.: Polar potassium rare earth nitrates K2[RE(NO3)5(H2O)2] (RE = La, Ce, Pr and Nd). II. Linear and nonlinear optical properties. J. Appl. Cryst. 33 (2000) 380-386.

  • K2(La0,25Ce0,75)(NO3)5·2H2O

  • K2(La0,75Ce0,25)(NO3)5·2H2O

Bohatý, L. & Becker, P.: Optical properties of non-centrosymmetric mixed crystals     K2(La1xCex)(NO3)5·2H2O  ( x = 0.0 – 1.0). Cryst. Res. Technol. 44 (2009) 1131 - 1138.
 

  • Rb2La(NO3)5·4H2O
  • Rb2Ce(NO3)5·4H2O
  • (NH4)2La(NO3)5·4H2O
  • (NH4)2Ce(NO3)5·4H2O

Bohatý, L., Fröhlich, R., Held, P. & Becker, P.: Non-centrosymmetric ammonium rare-earth nitrates (NH4)2RE(NO3)5·4H2O - Crystal structure, crystal  growth and optical properties.  Europ. J. Inorg. Chem. (2010) 2642 - 2648.

Bohatý, L., Fröhlich, R., Held, P. & Becker, P.: Non-centrosymmetric ammonium rare-earth nitrates (NH4)2RE(NO3)5·4H2O - Crystal structure, crystal  growth and optical properties.  Europ. J. Inorg. Chem. (2010) 2642 - 2648.

Ackermann, M. Andersen, L., Becker, P., Bohatý, L.: Pyroelectric properties of the monoclinic rare earth nitrates A2Ln(NO3)5·4H2O (A = NH4, Rb; Ln = La, Ce).  Z. Kristallogr. 230 (2015) 633-638.
 

Borates with H2O and/or OH

  • Na2[B4O5(OH)4]·3H2O    (=Na2B4O7·5H2O)
  • K2[B4O5(OH)4] · 2H2O     (=K2B4O7·4H2O)

Bohatý, L.: Dynamisches Verfahren zur Messung von elektrostriktiven und elektrooptischen Effekten. Beispiel: Tinkalkonit. Na2B4O5(OH)4 · 3H2O. Z. Kristallogr. 158 (1982) 233-239.

Hellwig, H., Becker, P., Ahrweiler, S. & Bohatý, L.: Crystal growth and linear optical properties of the non-centrosymmetric hydrated tetraborates Na2[B4O5(OH)4] · 3H2O (Tincalconite) and K2[B4O5(OH)4] · 2H2O.
Cryst. Res. Technol. 35 (2000) 1151-1161.
 

  • K[B5O6(OH)4]·2H2O   (=KB5O8·4H2O)
  • NH4[B5O6(OH)4]·2H2O   (=NH4B5O8·4H2O)

Becker, P., Held, P. & Bohatý, L.: Crystal growth and optical properties of the polar hydrated pentaborates Rb[B5O6(OH)4] . 2H2O and NH4[B5O6(OH)4] . 2H2O and structure redetermination of the ammonium compound. Cryst. Res. Technol. 35 (2000) 1251-1262.
 

Borates without H2O and/or OH

  • Zn4O(BO2)6 
vergrößern:
Crystal + prepared sample. Crystal grown by J. Liebertz.

Bohatý, L., Haussühl, S., Liebertz, J. &Stähr, S.: Single crystal growth and physical properties of cubic Zn4O(BO2)6. Z. Kristallogr. 161 (1982) 157-158.
 

  • Li2B4O7
vergrößern:
Crystal + prepared sample. Crystal grown by J. Liebertz.

Bohatý, L., Haussühl, S. & Liebertz, J.: Electrooptical coefficients and temperature and pressure derivatives of the elastic constants of tetragonal Li2B4O7. Cryst. Res. Technol. 24 (1989) 1159-1163.

Kaminskii, A. A., Bohatý, L., Becker, P., Liebertz, J., Eichler, H. J. & Rhee, H.: Stimulated Raman scattering and cascaded nonlinear laser ( χ(2)χ(3)) effects in tetragonal non-centrosymmetric Li2B4O7 single crystals. Laser Phys. Lett. 3 (2006) 519-530.

Fürst, J. U., Buse, K., Breunig, I., Becker, P., Liebertz, J., Bohatý, L.: Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator. Optics Letters  40 (2015) 1932 - 1935.
 

  • SrB4O7
vergrößern:
Crystal + prepared samples. Crystal grown by J. Liebertz.

Bohatý, L., Liebertz, J. & Stähr, S.: Strontiumtetraborat SrB4O7: Einkristallzüchtung, elektrooptische und elektrostriktive Eigen­schaften. Z. Kristallogr. 172 (1985) 135-138.

Stein, W.-D., Liebertz, J., Becker, P., Bohatý, L. & Braden, M.: Structural investigations of the tetraborates MB4O7 (M=Pb, Sr, Ba). Eur. Phys. J. B 85 (2012) 236 (5pp).
 

  • PbB4O7
vergrößern:
Crystal + prepared samples. Crystal grown by J. Liebertz.

Bohatý, L.: Elektrooptische und elektrostriktive Eigenschaften von Bleitetraborat PbB4O7. Z. Kristallogr. 164 (1983) 279-283.

Kaminskii, A. A., Bohatý, L., Becker, P., Liebertz, J., Bayarjargal, L., Hanuza, J.,  Eichler, H. J., Rhee, H. & Dong, J.: High-order stimulated Raman scattering an cascaded nonlinear lasing effects in crystals of ( χ(3)↔ χ(2))-active orthorhombic PbB4O7. Laser Phys. Lett. 4 (2007) 660-667.

Hanuza, J., Maczka, M., Lorenc, J., Kaminskii, A. A., Becker, P. & Bohatý, L. :  Polarized Raman and IR sptra of non-centrosymmetric PbB4O7 single crystal.  J. Raman Spectrosc. 39 (2008) 409-414.

Stein, W.-D., Liebertz, J., Becker, P., Bohatý, L. & Braden, M.: Structural investigations of the tetraborates MB4O7 (M=Pb, Sr, Ba). Eur. Phys. J. B 85 (2012) 236 (5pp).

Bohatý, L., Haussühl, S., Liebertz, J., Becker, P., Stein, W.-D. & Braden, M.:Physical properties of PbB4O7 and SrB4O7. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 24 (2006) 93.
 

  • BiB3O6

Fröhlich, R., Bohatý, L. & Liebertz, J.: Die Kristallstruktur von Wismutborat, BiB3O6. Acta Cryst. C40 (1984) 343-344.

Hellwig, H., Liebertz, J. & Bohatý, L: Exceptional large nonlinear optical coefficients in the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6 (BIBO). Solid State Commun. 109 (1999) 249-251.

Becker, P., Liebertz, J. & Bohatý, L.: Top-seeded growth of bismuth triborate, BiB3O6. J. Crystal Growth 203 (1999) 149-155.

Hellwig, H., Liebertz, J. & Bohatý, L.: Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6.
J. Appl. Phys. 88 (2000) 240-244.

Becker, P. & Bohatý, L.: Thermal expansion of bismuth triborate. Cryst. Res. Technol. 36 (2001) 1175 – 1180.

Kaminskii, A. A., Becker, P., Bohatý, L., Ueda, K., Takaichi, K., Hanuza, J., Maczka, K., Eichler, H. J. & Gad, G. M. A.: Monoclinic bismuth triborate BiB3O6 – a new efficient c(2) + c(3) – nonlinear crystal : multiple stimulated Raman scattering and self – sum – frequency lasing effects. Optics Comm. 206 (2002) 179 –191.

Bohatý,L. & Becker, P.: Linear electro-optic properties of bismuth triborate BiB3O6 (BIBO). Phys. Chem. Glasses 44 (2003) 212-214.

Gössling, A., Möller, T., Stein, W.-D., Becker, P., Bohatý, L. & Grüninger, M.: Phonon modes of monoclinic BiB3O6. phys. stat. sol. (b) 242 (2005) R85 - R87.

Haussühl, S., Bohatý, L. & Becker, P.: Piezoelectric and elastic properties of the nonlinear optical material bismuth triborate, BiB3O6. Appl. Phys A 82 (2006) 495 – 502.

Gorfman, S., Schmidt, O., Pietsch, U., Becker, P. & Bohatý, L.: X-ray diffraction study of the piezoelectric properties of BiB3O6 single crystals. Z. Kristallogr. 222 (2007) 396-401.

Stein, W.-D., Cousson, A., Becker, P., Bohatý, L. & Braden, M.: Temperature-dependent X-ray and neutron diffraction study of BiB3O6 . Z. Kristallogr. 222 (2007) 680-689.

Halevy, A., Megidish, E., Dovrat, L., Eisenberg, H. S., Becker, P. &  Bohatý, L.: The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 as a polarization entangled photon source using non-linear type-II parametric down-conversion.
Opt. Express 19 (2011) 20420

  • BiB3O6:REIII

    • BiB3O6:Nd
    • BiB3O6:Er
    • BiB3O6:Pr

(left to right)

Becker, P. & Wickleder, C.: Crystal Growth and Spectroscopic Characterisation of BiB3O6:RE3+ (RE3+ = Pr3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, Er3+, Tm3+). Cryst. Res. Technol. 36 (2001) 27-37.

Becker, P., Wickleder, C.: Crystal Growth and Spectroscopic Properties of RE:BiB3O6 (RE = Pr, Gd, Eu, Er). Acta Cryst. Suppl. A 55 (1999) 483.

Wickleder, C., Becker, P.: Kristallzüchtung und Lumineszenz von BiB3O6:Eu3+. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 17 (2000) 47.
 

  • RbNbOB2O5

Becker, P., Bohatý, L. & Fröhlich, R.: CsNbOB2O5: The basic structure-type of the borates AMOB2O5 (A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl; M = Nb, Ta). Acta Cryst. C51 (1995) 1721-1723

Becker, P., Bohatý, L. & Fröhlich, R.: Crystal structures of the ternary borates RbNbB2O6, CsNbB2O6, TlNbB2O6, and CsTaB2O6. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 8 (1994) 439.

Becker, P. & Bohatý, L.: Non-centrosymmetric borates in the systems A2O-Nb2O5-B2O3 and A2O-Bi2O3-B2O3 (A = K, Rb, Cs): systematic search for new compounds and crystals growth. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 14 (1997) 30.
 

  • K3[Nb3O6(BO3)2]

Becker, P., Schneider, J. & Bohatý, L.: Ferroische Phasenumwandlungen in K3Nb3B2O12. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 7 (1993) 14.

Becker, P. & Bohatý, L.: Phasenumwandlungen in K3Nb3B2O12. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 9 (1995) 28.

Becker, P., Held, P. & Bohatý L.: Crystal growth of ferroelectric and ferroelastic K3[Nb3O6(BO3)2] and crystal structure of the room temperature modification. Z. Kristallogr. 211 (1996) 449-452.

Becker, P., Bohatý, L. Schneider, J.: Crystal structure of the high-temperature K3[Nb3O6(BO3)2] phase refined by the Rietveld method. Crystallogr. Reports 42 (1997) 213-217 (Kristallografiya 42 (1997) 250-254).

Kaminskii, A. A., Becker, P., Bohatý, L., Eichler, H. J., Penin, A. N., Ueda, K., Hanuza, J., Takaichi, K. &  Rhee, H.: Room-temperature high-order Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in orthorhomic ferroelectric – ferroelastic K3Nb3O6(BO3)2 crystal. phys. stat. sol. (a)  201 (2004) 2154 – 2169.
 

  • Bi2B8O15

P. Becker, P. Held: Crystal growth and basic characterisation of the bismuth borate Bi2B8O15. Cryst. Res. Technol. 36 (2001) 1353-1356.

Becker, P., Held, P.: Bi2B8O15: Einkristallzüchtung und Polymorphie. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 20 (2003) 111.